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FileVault 2 on El Capitan is now FIPS 140-2 Compliant

April 20, 2016 Leave a comment

Apple officially announced on Wednesday, April 6th that the FIPS 140-2 validations for the cryptographic modules used by iOS 9 and OS X 10.11.x have now been completed. This is significant news for folks who want to use FileVault 2 in government and regulated industries (such as financial and health-care institutions.)

For folks who haven’t heard of it before, FIPS 140-2 is an information technology security accreditation program run jointly by the US and Canadian governments. This program is used by private sector vendors to have their cryptographic modules certified for use in US and Canadian government departments and private industries with regulatory requirements for security.

As part of the announcement, Apple has released KBase articles and guidance for security offices who deal with encryption:

Apple FIPS Cryptographic Modules v6.0 for OS X El Capitan v10.11https://support.apple.com/HT205748

Crypto Officer Role Guide for FIPS 140-2 Compliance OS X El Capitan v10.11https://support.apple.com/library/APPLE/APPLECARE_ALLGEOS/HT205748/APPLEFIPS_GUIDE_CO_OSX10.11.pdf

According to Apple, the OS X El Capitan Cryptographic Modules, Apple OS X CoreCrypto Module v6.0 and Apple OS X CoreCrypto Kernel Module v6.0, require no setup or configuration to be in “FIPS Mode” for FIPS 140-2 compliance on devices running OS X El Capitan 10.11.x.

FileVault 2 is listed as being FIPS 140-2 Compliant as part of the Crypto Officer Role Guide for FIPS 140-2 Compliance OS X El Capitan v10.11 documentation, in the Compliant Applications and Services section.

Screen Shot 2016 04 20 at 7 14 05 AM

 

For more information about the validation certification, please see below the jump.

Read more…

Identifying FileVault 2 institutional recovery keys on OS X El Capitan

April 10, 2016 Leave a comment

On OS X 10.9.0 – 10.11.x, you can run the following command to verify if a FileVault 2-encrypted Mac is using an institutional recovery key (IRK) as a valid recovery key.

fdesetup hasinstitutionalrecoverykey

If FileVault 2 is using an IRK, this command will return true.

Screen Shot 2016 04 10 at 4 20 04 PM

Otherwise it will return false.

Screen Shot 2016 04 10 at 4 03 57 PM

As part of the release of OS X 10.11.2, a new function was added to fdesetup‘s hasinstitutionalrecoverykey verb. Now, in addition to identifying whether or not FileVault 2 on a particular Mac has an institutional recovery key, a new -device option has been added which outputs a SHA-1 hash in hexadecimal notation of the IRK’s public key. This helps Mac admins answer two questions about institutional recovery keys:

  1. Is an IRK being used as a valid recovery key on this Mac?
  2. If an IRK is in use, which one is being used?

The -device option needs to be supplied with an identifier for the encrypted drive in question. This can be in the form of a BSD device name ( /dev/diskX ), the mount path ( /Volumes/Macintosh HD or ), or a UUID for the Logical Volume or Logical Volume Family of a CoreStorage volume.

To display the hash for an IRK’s public key on the Mac’s boot volume, run the command below with root privileges:

fdesetup hasinstitutionalrecoverykey -device /

It should output the hash of the IRK’s public key in hexadecimal notation.

Screen Shot 2016 04 10 at 4 19 21 PM

This value should be consistent across all FileVault 2-encrypted Macs which are using this IRK, so it should help Mac admins identify if a particular Mac is set up with the correct FileVault 2 institutional recovery key (or keys) used by their shop.

To assist with this, I’ve written a script to report the hash of the IRK’s public key. For more details, see below the jump.

Read more…

Slides from the “FileVault 2 Decrypted” Session at MacAD UK Conference 2016

February 10, 2016 Leave a comment

For those who wanted a copy of my FileVault 2 talk at MacAD UK 2016, here are links to the slides in PDF and Keynote format.

PDF – http://tinyurl.com/MacADUK2016pdf

Keynote – http://tinyurl.com/MacADUK2016key

FIPS 140-2 validation and FileVault 2

January 10, 2016 2 comments

One question I’ve seen which has caused confusion for folks who deal with security regulations is this: Is FileVault 2 FIPS 140-2 compliant?

The answer is: Yes, depending on the version of OS X

The cryptography used by FileVault 2 on the following versions of OS X has gone through the FIPS validation process and has been validated as being FIPS 140-2 Compliant:

The CoreCrypto cryptographic modules used by OS X 10.11 are currently in the process of becoming FIPS 140-2 validated. The reason FileVault 2 in El Capitan is not automatically FIPS 140-2 compliant has to do with OS X’s CoreCrypto cryptography foundation and how the FIPS 140-2 validation process works.

FIPS validation

The FIPS validation process tests a specific cryptographic module used inside a system to protect information. It also applies only to a cryptographic module used in a shipping product; the cryptographic module in question can’t be a prototype or in beta. 

Another important thing to know is that the testing is very specific and applies only to the cryptographic module submitted for review. If the vendor changes anything in the cryptographic module, it loses its FIPS validation and has to be resubmitted for laboratory testing and government review.

There are three major phases in the process:

Phase 1: Design and Documentation

In order to prepare for the FIPS validation process, the cryptographic module in question has to be designed to pass the various tests involved and also be properly documented. This is the part of the process which the vendor has the most control over.

Phase 2: Laboratory Testing

Once the cryptographic module has been designed, documented and shipped, it is submitted to a third-party accredited Cryptographic and Security Testing (CST) laboratory to test the module(s) in question against FIPS 140-2’s qualitative levels of security. This testing can take an indeterminate amount of time, depending on how well the cryptographic module is designed and documented.

Best case: A cryptographic module that properly meets the requirements and with all required documentation written correctly can complete its laboratory testing in two to three months.

Phase 3: Government Review

After the lab has tested the cryptographic module, a report on the testing is submitted to the Cryptographic Module Validation Program (CMVP) for review. CMVP is a joint US-Canadian program that reviews all the test reports, with the CMVP Validation Authorities being the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the US Government and the Communications Security Establishment (CSE) for the Government of Canada. This review can also take an indeterminate amount of time, depending on how many test reports need review, and can range from two months to eight months.

Apple and CoreCrypto

Apple’s CoreCrypto library is used by various components in OS X to provide low level cryptographic primitive support. This is the cryptographic library which is submitted by Apple to the FIPS 140-2 validation process.

With every version of iOS and OS X, Apple has made changes to CoreCrypto. As part of making those changes, Apple has had to resubmit CoreCrypto to laboratory testing and government review as part of the FIPS 140-2 validation process.

Apple’s stated intention is to continue FIPS 140-2 validation for OS X’s CoreCrypto cryptography foundation, which would also cover FileVault 2 on future versions of OS X, but the validation process itself can only be begun once that future OS has been released. Meanwhile, as noted above, the testing and governmental review process will take months to complete.

The good news is that it’s possible to at least see where Apple is in the process. NIST has a website where the current list of modules in the process can be viewed via a PDF which is updated weekly. To check for Apple’s progress, search the PDF for entries where Apple Inc. is listed as the vendor.

For more information on this subject, Apple has KBase articles available via the links below:

Product security, validations, and guidance for iOS

Product security, validations, and guidance for OS X

Apple’s existing FIPS validations are also available for reference via the link below:

http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/STM/cmvp/documents/140-1/1401vend.htm

Managing El Capitan’s FileVault 2 with fdesetup

December 20, 2015 4 comments

For the first time since fdesetup‘s initial release in OS X Mountain Lion 10.8.x, Apple has not added new features to fdesetup as part of a new OS release. Instead, fdesetup maintains the same set of features in OS X El Capitan 10.11.x as it had in OS X Yosemite 10.10.x.

This decision may mean that fdesetup, an essential command-line tool for enabling, administering and disabling Apple’s FileVault 2 encryption, is now considered by Apple to be a fully-developed toolset for managing FileVault 2.

fdesetup gives Mac administrators the following command-line abilities:

  • Enable or disable FileVault 2 encryption on a particular Mac
  • Use a personal recovery key, an institutional recovery key, or both kinds of recovery key.
  • Enable one or multiple user accounts at the time of encryption
  • Get a list of FileVault 2-enabled users on a particular machine
  • Add additional users after FileVault has been enabled
  • Remove users from the list of FileVault enabled accounts
  • Add, change or remove individual and institutional recovery keys
  • Report which recovery keys are in use
  • Perform a one-time reboot that bypasses the FileVault pre-boot login
  • Report on the status of FileVault 2 encryption or decryption

I’ll be taking you through all of the capabilities mentioned above, with a focus on showing exactly how they work. See below the jump for details.

Read more…

FileVault 2 on Yosemite is now FIPS 140-2 Compliant

August 11, 2015 Leave a comment

Apple announced on Saturday, August 8th that the FIPS 140-2 validations for the cryptographic modules used by iOS 8 and OS X 10.10.x have now been completed. This is significant news for folks who want to use FileVault 2 in government and regulated industries (such as financial and health-care institutions.)

For folks who haven’t heard of it before, FIPS 140-2 is an information technology security accreditation program run jointly by the US and Canadian governments. This program is used by private sector vendors to have their cryptographic modules certified for use in US and Canadian government departments and private industries with regulatory requirements for security.

As part of the announcement, Apple has released KBase articles and guidance for security offices who deal with encryption:

OS X Yosemite: Apple FIPS Cryptographic Modules v5.0http://support.apple.com/kb/HT205017

Crypto Officer Role Guide for FIPS 140-2 Compliance OS X Yosemite v10.10https://support.apple.com/library/APPLE/APPLECARE_ALLGEOS/HT205017/APPLEFIPS_GUIDE_CO_OSX10.10.pdf

According to Apple, the OS X Yosemite Cryptographic Modules, Apple OS X CoreCrypto Module v5.0 and Apple OS X CoreCrypto Kernel Module v5.0, require no setup or configuration to be in “FIPS Mode” for FIPS 140-2 compliance on devices running OS X Yosemite v10.10.

FileVault 2 is listed as being FIPS 140-2 Compliant as part of the Crypto Officer Role Guide for FIPS 140-2 Compliance OS X Yosemite v10.10 documentation, in the Compliant Applications and Services section.

Screen Shot 2015 08 11 at 11 13 21 AM

For more information about the validation certification, please see below the jump.

Read more…

Yosemite’s paused encryption problem fixed in 10.10.3

June 10, 2015 8 comments

When Yosemite was released in October 2014, one of the changes it introduced was including a new FileVault 2 enablement option in Apple’s Setup Assistant. This option encouraged new users of Yosemite to enable FileVault 2 encryption and had the choice to enable FileVault 2 selected by default.

When the encryption process began, a significant issue then appeared for a number of users where the Mac would report Encryption paused during the encryption process, then never resume the encryption process.

Filevault stuck encryption paused

 

This produced a situation where the Mac could not complete encryption, but would not decrypt either because the encryption process had not completed. The only fix appeared to be deleting the existing CoreStorage volume, which addressed the issue at the cost of deleting everything stored on the boot drive.

Fortunately, OS X 10.10.3 includes a fix that should stop this issue from occurring on OS X 10.10.3 and later. There is also now a procedure that should fix Macs still affected by this problem. For more details, see below the jump.

Read more…

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