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Archive for the ‘Mac OS X’ Category

First Boot Package Install Revisited

April 17, 2014 1 comment

As covered previously, Greg Neagle’s createOSXinstallPkg is a useful tool for installing or upgrading Mac OS X in a variety of situations. One of the nicer features is that you can edit the OS X installer to install additional packages.

However, the limitations of the OS X install environment mean that there are a number of installers that won’t install correctly. In particular, packages that rely on pre- or postflight scripts to perform important tasks may fail to run properly in the OS X install environment.

To help work around this limitation, I developed First Boot Package Install.pkg, an installer package that enables other packages to be installed at first boot. It’s designed for use with createOSXinstallPkg with the goal of allowing installer packages that can’t run in the OS X Install environment to be incorporated into a createOSXinstallPkg-using deployment workflow.

The first version of First Boot Package Install.pkg had some limitations though, with the biggest one probably being that you couldn’t tell what it was doing when it was running. Instead, all that was displayed was the gray Apple loading screen.

AppleBootScreen

I tried various approaches of booting into verbose mode and writing log entries to the console, but none of the approaches were good enough to introduce into production. Fortunately, Per Olofsson developed exactly what I was looking for with his LoginLog tool.

login_log

Using LoginLog.app as a way to display updates to the user, I’ve been able to update First Boot Package Install.pkg with improved visual feedback. I’ve also now incorporated another piece of feedback I’ve received, which is to add a network check. This new check makes sure that the Mac has a network address other than 127.0.0.1 or 0.0.0.0 before it proceeds to install any packages. For more details, see below the jump.

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Using /etc/auto_home on Mavericks to mount shares under /home

April 6, 2014 2 comments

One of my users at work asked me recently about symlinking his network home folder to /home on his Mac running 10.9.2 and wanted to check to see if it was safe to do so.

In this case, the person in question works on both Fedora Linux, where his network home directory was mounted as /home/username, and on OS X. His network home directory was available via SMB on his Mac as smb://servername/home$/username. He wanted to be able to mount smb://servername/home$/username to /home/username on his Mac, so that it matched the mountpoint of his network home on his Fedora box.

At the time, here’s what I knew about /home:

1. Nothing appears to be stored in it by default

2. It’s listed in /etc/auto_master as a mountpoint

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3. Time Machine does not back it up

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Removing all recovery keys from a FileVault 2-encrypted Mavericks Mac

March 24, 2014 2 comments

One of the functions added to the fdesetup tool on 10.9 is removerecovery. This function removes the current recovery key(s) from a FileVault 2-encrypted Mac and can be used to remove with the personal and/or institutional recovery keys from a Mac.

One interesting aspect of this is that this function can be used to remove all recovery keys from a FileVault 2-encrypted Mac running Mavericks. Once the recovery keys have been removed from your Mac, only FileVault 2-enabled accounts will be able to unlock or decrypt it. For more details, see below the jump.

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Disabling FileVault 2 with fdesetup on Mountain Lion and Mavericks

March 22, 2014 Leave a comment

Recently, I was asked how to disable FileVault 2 without needing to go into System Preferences. The general idea was that an organization may want to provide their users without admin rights a way to turn off FileVault 2 on an as-needed basis.

Most of the work I’ve done has been focused around turning on FileVault 2 and managing it, rather than providing a way for users to turn it off. That said, fdesetup on both Mountain Lion and Mavericks provides a way to disable FileVault 2 with proper authorization.

To disable FileVault 2 on the Mac you’re logged into, run the following command with root privileges:

fdesetup disable

You’ll be prompted for either the password of an enabled user or a personal recovery key.

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Note: If a personal recovery key was not set up on a particular Mac, you’ll only be prompted for the password of an enabled user.

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Once the password or personal recovery key has been entered, the Mac will begin to decrypt.

For those who want to automate this procedure, you can do this using an expect script or other means. As an example, I’ve written an expect script which automates running the fdesetup disable process described above.

Payload-Free Package Creator.app

March 8, 2014 3 comments

I do a lot of work with payload-free packages and I’ve looked for a while for a tool that would let me easily create them from existing scripts. While I have a process for creating them as needed with pkgbuild, this approach still requires some setup work.

Payload-Free Package Creator logo

After thinking about it and taking a look at various approaches, I’ve developed Payload-Free Package Creator.app, an Automator application that will allow the selection of an existing script and create a payload-free package that runs the selected script. For more details, see below the jump.

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Deploying Sophos Anti-Virus for Mac OS X 9.x

February 20, 2014 4 comments

For the past few major releases, Sophos used a standard installer package to install both their free and paid antivirus solution. With the release of Sophos Anti-Virus 9.x though, Sophos changed how their antivirus solution for Macs was installed by switching to using an application to install it. For their customers using Sophos Enterprise Console, Sophos will still provide a installer metapackage, but all other customers now need to use the application to install Sophos Anti-Virus 9.x on Macs.

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Curiously, Sophos went to some lengths to make their install application look like a standard installer package.

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This extended to the point of naming the actual application as Installer, which is the same name as Apple’s Installer.

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This switch away from using installer packages was a problem for Mac admins who wanted to deploy Sophos 9.x, but did not have Sophos’ enterprise console. After doing some research and reading a very helpful thread on JAMF Nation, it looks like it is possible to repackage Sophos 9.x for deployment. For more details, see below the jump.

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Managing the Authorization Database in OS X Mavericks

February 16, 2014 2 comments

Prior to OS X Mavericks, the /etc/authorization XML file controlled the rights for many different actions, such as adding a printer, setting up Time Machine or setting DVD region codes. Modifying this file required root access and could be performed with a text editor. The /etc/authorization file could also be modified by using the security command line tool included with OS X, but most chose not to do so because directly editing the file was easier.

With the release of OS X Mavericks, /etc/authorization has been removed in favor of a new authorization database, which is a SQLite database located at /var/db/auth.db. There is also an authorization.plist file located in /System/Library/Security, which is used by the OS as a template for a new /var/db/auth.db database file, in the event that the OS detects on boot that /var/db/auth.db does not exist.

To see what’s in the database, you can export the database to a text file using the following command:

sudo sqlite3 auth.db .dump > /path/to/filename.txt

It’s also possible to open the exported data directly inside text editors that support this option. For example, the following command can be used to export the database and automatically open the exported data in a new TextWrangler document:

sudo sqlite3 auth.db .dump | edit

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Power Nap, power management settings and FileVault 2

February 12, 2014 3 comments

I recently purchased a new MacBook Pro Retina for my own use and encrypted it with FileVault 2. As part of setting it up, I ran the following command to ensure that the laptop hibernated (where the contents of the RAM are written to disk) and also have the FileVault 2 key automatically removed from the saved RAM state when I put the laptop to sleep:

sudo pmset -a destroyfvkeyonstandby 1 hibernatemode 25

I then put my laptop to sleep and shortly thereafter went to sleep myself.

The next morning, I went to wake up my laptop. I expected to see my account icon and a password blank at the FileVault 2 login screen, which would indicate that it had been asleep.

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Instead, I saw the icons for all of the FileVault 2-enabled accounts on my laptop.

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That indicated that my laptop had turned off instead of being asleep. For more details, see below the jump.

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Deploying Xerox print drivers on a per-OS basis via Casper’s Self Service

February 10, 2014 Leave a comment

In my shop, we use a Xerox color copier/printer along with a number of Canon ImageRunner printers. Like the Canons, I have the Xerox printer available in Casper’s Self Service so that our users can set this printer up themselves on their Macs. When I recently overhauled my Canon printer setups, I decided to also revisit how Self Service handled setting up the Xerox printer. Unlike our Canon printers, our Xerox printer used LPR already so I figured that getting the right drivers deployed should be straightforward.

Then I looked at Xerox’s driver page and saw three different driver installers available:

For 10.5.x – Xerox Print Driver 2.94.3

For 10.6.x – Xerox Print Driver 2.112.0

For 10.7.x through 10.9.x – Xerox Print Driver 2.113.0

I wanted to maintain roughly the same workflow as I had with the Canon printers, but I also wanted to make sure that the OS-appropriate driver was delivered to each Mac.

For details on how I addressed this, see below the jump.

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Deploying Canon print drivers with printer setups via Casper’s Self Service

February 6, 2014 3 comments

In my shop, we use a number of Canon ImageRunner printers and have them set up in Casper’s Self Service so that our users can set them up themselves. All of the Canon printers in question have PostScript enabled, so I’ve been deploying the Canon PostScript drivers.

Historically, one of the things that was installed along with the drivers was a proprietary printing application that sat between the Mac’s CUPS printing system and the actual printer. That changed with the release of Canon’s 4.x PostScript drivers. With the new drivers, Canon has switched to using LPR and no longer uses that proprietary printing application.

Good news: Canon is no longer building in a custom printer program to handle talking to the printer; instead the new drivers are using LPR.

Bad news: Our existing printer setups that are available in Self Service do not work with the new printer drivers. I would need to delete and re-add our various printers to Self Service.

The bad news wasn’t a big problem by itself, but my testing showed that updating the printers in Self Service to accommodate the new printer drivers would make them no longer backwards-compatible with the old drivers. The new drivers would need to be installed in order for the new printers to work. Conversely, just pushing out the new drivers to our Macs could result in existing printer setups breaking.

In short, here were the problems I was looking at:

1. The old printer setups could not use the new drivers

2. The new printer setups could not use the old drivers

3. The new drivers needed to be installed before the new printer setup happened.

4. I didn’t want to break existing printer setups if I could avoid it.

Making the new drivers available in Self Service as standalone installers wasn’t an issue but I was concerned about adding them to the printer setups themselves. That potentially could result in the printer drivers being installed over and over again as people set up multiple printers on one Mac. I also wanted to avoid problems with accidentally trying to overwrite newer drivers, in the event that Canon released new drivers and someone installed them before I updated the driver installer in Self Service.

For details on how I addressed this, see below the jump.

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